Hedgehogs are fairly easy to care for. The biggest issue in hedgehog care is sorting through the numerous opinions of what works best for your pet, and this is a constantly evolving topic. All that I can tell you is what I have found to be the best solutions for keeping a healthy and long lived pet.
Hedgehogs are rather simple to house. Their cage should be large enough for them to have ample room to run; I use cages that are about 2’x3′. Be sure that the enclosure does not have wire floors, or any kind of floor that allows for fecal drop through; hedgehogs can get their legs or toes caught in the holes which could result in scrapes or broken limbs. Hedgehog feet are more like paws than those of rodents.
Be wary of putting anything into the cage that will allow the hedgehog to climb. I prefer using hides or nest boxes that are rounded so that the hedgehog cannot climb on top. Water bottles with wire hangers are dangerous if mounted inside the cage because your hedgehog might try to climb it and get its foot hung up between the wire and the bottle.
What to use as bedding is a subject that has had dozens of differing views over the years. It is important to not use anything with high amounts of natural aromatic oils, such as cedar (pine is considered to be safe, but is still not the best choice): these have been shown to have harmful effects on the liver function of various small animals who had prolonged exposure.
What I have found to be the best choice for bedding is a mixture of Aspen shavings and a soft woody pet pellets. There is little or no dust, the woody pets let you quickly identify when an area is wet, and there is virtually no odor. The aspen shavings provide a soft bedding material and they are quite absorbent.
Another suitable alternative to wood bedding is to use an absorbent cloth that can be run through the wash, such as vellux or fleece. The downsides to these is that they don’t allow for the natural burrowing and digging that hedgehogs enjoy, and loose threads can be hazardous to their little toes.
Food and Water
Your hedgehog will need a regular supply of clean food and water. Food should be given in a shallow bowl. It is best to feed your hedgehog dry cat food that has the first ingredient listed as some kind of meat, such as chicken: try and avoid as many fillers (corn) as possible. Hedgehogs are insectivores, they will approve of anything meat based. The occasional meal worm is an excellent treat and a good supplement. Most of the hedgehog foods on the market are actually not good for hedgehogs (they’re basically just cheap cat food in a box labeled hedgehog food). Below is a summary of the information from the book Hedgehog.
In the wild a hedgehog’s diet will consist of mostly insect larvae such as caterpillars. They will also eat beetles, earthworms, and snails. There is evidence to suggest that they eat quite a bit of vegetation (grass,roots,fruit,etc.): but most of the greens consumed by hedgehogs are not actually digested. Hedgehogs are “opportunistic” eaters and will eat many things just because it happened to walk in front of them– or vice versa. In the wild, hedgehogs will also eat larger prey such as small amphibians, snakes, rodents, and even nesting birds or eggs.(Reeve, pp 55-89).
I have found that water bottles are better than bowls due to a hedgehog’s instinct to turn over any objects that are in it’s cage, however, some hedgehogs are more comfortable drinking from bowls. It is very important that if a water bottle is used, that it be mounted in a way that does not allow the hedgehog to climb on it as this may lead to injury. It is also important that the bottle be mounted in a way that allows the hedgehog to drink comfortably from it: a hedgehog should not need to lift its head up or strain to reach the nozzle of the water bottle when the bottle is mounted at the right height.
If you find that you need to use a water bowl, then I would suggest that it be a heavy bowl that cannot be overturned or find a way to fasten it down. Using a water bowl does not usually work when also using wood shavings as a bedding since most hedgehogs will fill the bowl with the shavings while foraging around the base. The benefit of using a bowl is that it provides a more natural position for the hedgehog to drink.
Hedgehogs and Veterinarians
Just like any other animal it is possible for your hedgehog to become ill and need treatment. It can be dangerous to wait until you need a vet before you try to find one. You should always know of at least one vet in your area who can treat hedgehogs.
Due to how uncommon hedgehogs are in some areas, not all vets will know how to treat them. I was fortunate enough to get a vet who used to be a hedgehog breeder. Obviously, not everyone will be so lucky. If you already have a vet you know and trust then talk with them to see if they would know how to treat a hedgehog should the need arise.
Pet Hedgehogs and Hibernation
Central-African hedgehogs are from warm climates and cannot be cold. If the temperature drops below seventy two degrees Fahrenheit then a hedgehog may begin to show some symptoms of hypothermia. Some symptoms are becoming lethargic and cool to the touch. If not corrected, this can be fatal. If you notice that your hedgehog has become cool to the touch and seems to be having difficulties moving and/or has not been eating, then immediately get them warmer and contact your vet. Some breeders refer to this as ‘attempted hibernation’: while some hedgehog species do hibernate, Atelerix albiventris does not. Regardless of what you might read online, this is not ‘vestigial’ or ‘attempted’ hibernation, they are just tropical animals getting too cold.
Illnesses to be Aware of
The afflictions discussed in this section are not extremely common problems for pet hedgehogs, they are just some of the worst-case scenarios that responsible hedgehog owners should be aware of since they can prove fatal for their pet. If you keep your hedgehog properly fed, clean, and in dry conditions at appropriate temperatures, which is pretty easy to do, then there should rarely be problems concerning their health. Look out for loose stool and/or signs of mites or other parasites; and watch your hedgehog for a sudden change in behavior: becoming lazy or aggressive– suddenly becoming aggressive could mean that it is in pain; not to be confused with quilling aggression (when they lose their baby spines and grow in their adult spines nearly all at once, think teething but with spines), which commonly occurs between four and twelve weeks of age and often causes discomfort. Always contact your vet if you believe that something might be wrong.
The worst-case concerns discussed here are tumors, fatty liver disease, and Wobbly Hedgehog Syndrome (WHS).
Tumors are usually noticeable as lumps under the skin. If you notice any such lumps then you should contact your vet. Be sure to ask about tumors for any sudden change in behavior. Tumors can be a common problem for hedgehogs in the wild and captivity but do not usually develop until they are older.
Fatty liver disease is a considerable concern for some hedgehogs. The easiest way to detect this is by looking for yellowing on the skin of the under-arms or belly. In later stages the hedgehog may become lazy and/or stop eating. The causes of fatty liver disease might be dietary or genetic. It is most often going to be the result of the poor quality of food being fed to some captive hedgehogs and lack of proper exercise.
Wobbly Hedgehog Syndrome is one of the most devastating diseases found in hedgehogs. Any decent breeder keeps track of pedigrees to avoid disorders such as this one. Unfortunately, much is still unknown about this relatively rare disease. It is believed to be a familial disorder (seemingly genetic with a recessive mode of inheritance and a possibility of environmental factors), and shows a strong correlation with an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system called Degenerative Myelopathy (DM) [similar to disorders like muscular dystrophy or ALS]. The symptoms are progressive and start with wobbly motion, typically starting with the hind legs. The hedgehog will then lose the ability to use its hind legs. From there the hedgehog might also lose function in the front limbs as the disease progresses until they no longer have any control of their motor functions. There are many other possibilities that can mimic the early stages WHS, such as tumors in the spine or brain, or even simple ear-infections, ask your vet if you notice any signs.
If a necropsy is to be performed on a hedgehog that was believed to have had WHS, then be sure that the professionals performing the procedure are familiar with the signs of WHS; otherwise it might be overlooked. Some hedgehogs could have other problems that could have contributed to the cause of death (such as fatty liver disease and tumors, or even just old age) that might make someone overlook the spinal damage. It is not a very common disease, but if you do obtain a hedgehog that is found to have WHS, then you should contact the breeder and let them know.